Study On The Effects Of Lignocaine Using The Epidural Route In PPR Infected West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats

Abayomi Kayode Olaifa, Cecilia O. Oguntoye, Anuoluwapo Brown

Abstract


Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats associated with high morbidity and mortality. Often times, veterinarians are faced with sick goats presented with co-existing emergency clinical conditions such as foreign body impaction, ruminal tympany, dystocia that require surgical intervention, necessitating the use of anaesthesia. The aim of this study, was to assess and compare the anaesthetic indices and vital parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats naturally infected with PPR before and after epidural anaesthesia with plain lignocaine and also to compare the measured anaesthetic indices with those of healthy goats. Ten goats were used for this study sorted into infected and non- infected goats. The vital parameters of the goats were taken two days prior to the commencement of the experiment. The anaesthetic indices of the animals were measured. The goat’s rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) were immediately measured after the epidural injection and subsequently at 15 minute intervals over a 120-minute period using a mercury-in-glass thermometer (˚C) and by visual observation of the thoraco-abdominal excursion respectively. Heart rate was measured in beats/min with the aid of a pericardial stethoscope. The result showed a significant increase in heart rate of PPR infected goats as compared to the healthy gaots, an insignificant increase in respiratory rate and an insignificant changes in the rectal temperatures. Time of recumbency and onset of analgesia was significantly reduced in PPR infected goats as compared to the healthy goats. In conclusion, epidural anaesthesia with plain lignocaine in naturally PPR infected WAD goats produced anaesthesia of about one hour with some adverse effects on the vital parameters of the goats and if emergency surgery caudal to the umbilicus is necessary in sick goats, epidural anaesthesia with injection of lignocaine must be  used with caution so as not cause unexpected mortality

 


Keywords


Goats, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), Lignocaine

References


Jahn UR., Waurick R., Van Aken H., Hinder F., Booke M., Bone HG.et al., (2001). Thoracic but not lumbar, epidural anaesthesia improves cardiopulmonary function in ovine pulmonary embolism. AnaesthAnalg. 93; 1460-1465.

Nisbet, C., Yarim, G.F., Gumusova, S.O. and Yazici, Z. (2007) Investigation of the antioxidativemetabolism in sheep with pestedespetitsruminants. Acta. Vet. (Beograd). 57, 351-356.

Liu S, Carpenter RL, Neal JM. (1995). Epidural anesthesia and analgesia.Anesthesiology; 82:1474–1506.

Davies P., Maconochie I. (2009). The relationship between body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate in childrenEmerg Med J; 26:641–643

Odunsi, A. A, Togun, V. A. and Oladunjoye, I. O. (2005). Introduction to Animal Production and Processing. Oluseyi Press Limited, Nigeria.

Omoike A (2006). Prevalence of diseases among sheep and goats in Edo State Nigeria. J. Agric. Soc. Res. 6:23-31.

Pollot, G., Wilson, R.T. (2009) Sheep and Goats for diverse products and profits. FAO diversification booklet, 9, pp 42.

Adeloye, A.A. (1998). The Nigerian Small Ruminant Species. Cooperate Office, Maximum, Ilorin, Nigeria. Pp 7-8.

Domenech, J., Lubroth, J., Eddi, C., Martin, V., Roger, F. (2006) Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases. Ann N.Y. Acad. Sd. 1081, 90- 107.

Lefevre, P.C. and Diallo, A. (1990) Peste des petits ruminants. Rev. Sci. Tech, 9: 935-981.

Hall, L.W., Clarke, K.W., Trim, C.M. (2001) Principles of Sedation, analgesia and premedication. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia, 10th edition, Elsevier, Oxford. pp 75-112.

Taylor, P.M., (1991) ‘Anaesthesia in sheep and goats’, In Practice 13, 31–36.

Boesch, J.M., and Campoy L. (2004) Sedation, General Anesthesia, and Analgesia in Farm animal surgery. Fubini, S.L., Duchame, N.G.( editors) St Louis, Harcourt Health Sciences Pp 60-80.

Khan, H.A., Siddique, M., Arshad, M.J., Khan, Q.M., Rehman, S.U. (2007)Sero-prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in sheep and goats in Punjab province of Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 27, 109–112.

Cruz, M., Luna, S.P.L., Clark, R.M.O, Massone, F., Castro, G.B. (1997). Epidural anaesthesia using lignocaine, bupivacaine or a mixture of lignocaine and bupivacaine in dogs. J. Vet. Anaesth. 24(1): 30-32.

Umar, M.A., and Gapsiso, R.H. (2009) Comparison of xylazine, lignocaine and combination of xylazine and lignocaine for epidural anaesthesia in goats. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 29(2): 15-19.

Barrett T, Amarel-Doel C, Kitching RP, Gusev A. (1993) Use of the polymerase chain reaction in differentiating rinderpest field virus and vaccine virus in the same animals. Rev Sci Tech.;12(3):865–872.

Gibbs EP, Taylor WP, Lawman MJ, Bryant J. (1979) Classification of peste des petits ruminants virus as the fourth member of the genus Morbillivirus. Intervirology.;11(5):268–274.

Gargadennec L, Lalanne A. (1942) La peste des petits ruminants. Bull Serve ZootechEpizootAfrOccid Fr.;5:16–21.

Taylor WP. (1984) The distribution and epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in the sultanate of oman. Vet Microbiol.;22:341–352.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.