Brain Oxidative Status in Rats after Smoke Exposure


  • Musa Ibrahim Kurawa Bayero University Kano
  • Rabiu AbduSSalam Magaji
  • Mohammed Garba Magaji
  • Tanko Yusuf
  • Murtala Ya’u
  • Usman Aliyu Daneji


carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke, generator exhaust fumes, mosquito coil smoke, oxidative stress


Although endogenous CO is beneficial, exogenous CO exposure may cause increased oxidative stress in other organs.  Here, we investigated the effect of sub-chronic exposure of mice to CO from three common sources (cigarette, mosquito coil, and generator) on the brain. 32 mice, weighing 20 – 25g were recruited into one of the four groups. Each group was exposed to either of the 3 smokes for 15 minutes, daily, over 14 days. Digital CO meter was used to measure the amount of CO in the gas chamber (75 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm), while malondialdehyde, glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity were measured in the brain. Exposure to generator fumes produces the highest CO (1000 ppm), followed by cigarette smoke (356 ppm) and then MC smoke (304 ppm). Mice that were exposed to the generator fumes had a relatively higher level of MDA (0.04 ɲMol/mL), however, it is not significantly different from that of other groups. There was significant oxidative stress in the cigarette group due to the high SOD activity (2.36 µ/mgprotein) and also in the MC group due to the low GSH level (132.34 mg GSH/ gprotein). The significant oxidative stress observed in the cigarette and MC groups couldn’t have been due to CO alone, some specific constituents of cigarette and MC could have aggravated the problem. Brief, daily exposure to CO from the 3 sources for 14 days was associated with significant oxidative stress that could affect the normal functions of the brain


Andersson, J. A., Uddman, R., Tajti, J. & Cardell, L.O. 2002. Heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase in human middle ear epithelium indicates local carbon monoxide and nitric oxide production. Acta oto-laryngologica, 122, 634-637.
Augustine, C. 2012. Impact of air pollution on the environment in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources, 1, 46-51.
AUSTIN, J., BRIMBLECOMBE, P. & STURGES, W. 2002. Air pollution science for the 21st century, Elsevier.
Ayodele, J., Adekiya, A. & Yakubu, I. (2007):. Carbon Monoxide as Indoor Pollutant in Kano Metropolis. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 11.
Bernerd, E. (2013): Determination of Carbon Monoxide Concentration in Industrial and Commercial Areas of Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. World Environment, 3, 133-137.
Beltrán FA, A. A., Miró MP, Castro MA. 2012. Brain energy metabolism in health and disease. InNeuroscience-Dealing With Frontiers
Chan, Y. L., Saad, S., Pollock, C., Oliver, B., Al-Odat, I., Zaky, A. A., Jones, N. & Chen, H. (2016): Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring. Scientific reports, 6, 25881.
Coburn, R., Williams, W. & Forster, R. (1964): Effect of erythrocyte destruction on carbon monoxide production in man. The Journal of clinical investigation, 43, 1098-1103.
DRINGEN, R. (2000): Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain. Progress in neurobiology, 62, 649-671.
El-Demerdash, F. M. (2011): Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase in rat brain exposed to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Food and chemical toxicology, 49, 1346-1352.
Fan, D.-F., Hu, H.-J., Sun, Q., Lv, Y., Ye, Z.-H., Sun, X.-J. & Pan, S.-Y. (2016): Neuroprotective effects of exogenous methane in a rat model of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. brain research, 1633, 62-72.
Gall, E. T., Carter, E. M., Matt Earnest, C. & Stephens, B. (2013): Indoor air pollution in developing countries: research and implementation needs for improvements in global public health. American journal of public health, 103, e67-e72.
Garba, S. H. (2007): Toxicological Effects of Inhaled Mosquito Coil Smoke on the Rat Spleen: A Haematological and Histological Study" SH Garba," MM Shehu and “AB Adelaiye. J. Med. Sci, 7, 94-99.
Gupta, A., Nigam, D., Gupta, A., Shukla, G. & Agarwal, A. (1999): Effect of pyrethroid‐based liquid mosquito repellent inhalation on the blood–brain barrier function and oxidative damage in selected organs of developing rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology: An International Forum Devoted to Research and Methods Emphasizing Direct Clinical, Industrial and Environmental Applications, 1999. Wiley Online Library, 67-72.
Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J. M. & Cross, C. E. (1992): Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: where are we now? The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 119, 598-620.
Halliwell, B. B. & Poulsen, H. E. (2006): Cigarette smoke and oxidative stress, Springer.
Issam, C., Zohra, H., Monia, Z. & Hassen, B. C. (2011): Effects of dermal sub-chronic exposure of pubescent male rats to permethrin (PRMT) on the histological structures of genital tract, testosterone and lipoperoxidation. Experimental and toxicologic pathology, 63, 393-400.
Karthikeyan, S., Gobianand, K., Pradeep, K., Mohan, C. R. & Balasubramanian, M. (2006): Biochemical changes in serum, lung, heart and spleen tissues of mice exposed to sub-acute toxic inhalation of mosquito repellent mat vapour. Journal of environmental biology, 37, 355-358.
Kavakli, H. S., Erel, O., Delice, O., Gormez, G., Isikoglu, S. & Tanriverdi, F. (2011): Oxidative stress increases in carbon monoxide poisoning patients. Human & experimental toxicology, 30, 160-164.
Lopez, I. A., Acuna, D., Beltran-Parrazal, L., Lopez, I. E., Amarnani, A., Cortes, M. & Edmond, J. (2009): Evidence for oxidative stress in the developing cerebellum of the rat after chronic mild carbon monoxide exposure (0.0025% in air). BMC neuroscience, 10, 53.
Mazzone, P., Tierney, W., Hossain, M., Puvenna, V., Janigro, D. & Cucullo, L. (2010): Pathophysiological impact of cigarette smoke exposure on the cerebrovascular system with a focus on the blood-brain barrier: expanding the awareness of smoking toxicity in an underappreciated area. International journal of environmental research and public health, 7, 4111-4126.
Mossa, A.-T. H., Refaie, A. A., Ramadan, A. & Bouajila, J. (2013): Amelioration of prallethrin-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rat by the administration of Origanum majorana essential oil. BioMed Research International, 2013.
Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N. & Yagi, K. (1979): Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical biochemistry, 95, 351-358.
Otterbein, L. E., Bach, F. H., Alam, J., Soares, M., Lu, H. T., Wysk, M., Davis, R. J., Flavell, R. A. & Choi, A. M. (2000): Carbon monoxide has anti-inflammatory effects involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Nature medicine, 6, 422.
Peshin, R., Bandral, R. S., Zhang, W., Wilson, L. & Dhawan, A. K. (2009): Integrated pest management: a global overview of history, programs and adoption. Integrated pest management: innovation-development process. Springer.
Piantadosi, C. A. (2008): Carbon monoxide, reactive oxygen signaling, and oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45, 562-569.
Piantadosi, C. A., Tatro, L. & Zhang, J. 1995. Hydroxyl radical production in the brain after CO hypoxia in rats. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 18, 603-609.
Poon, H. F., Calabrese, V., Scapagnini, G. & Butterfield, D. A. (2004): Free radicals: key to brain aging and heme oxygenase as a cellular response to oxidative stress. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 59, M478-M493.
Prockop, L. D. & Chichkova, R. I. (2007): Carbon monoxide intoxication: an updated review. Journal of the neurological sciences, 262, 122-130.
Ramesh, A. & Vijayalakshmi, A. (2001): Monitoring of allethrin, deltamethrin, esbiothrin, prallethrin and transfluthrin in air during the use of household mosquito repellents. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 3, 191-193.
Ramesh, T., Sureka, C., Bhuvana, S. & Begum, V. H. (2015): Oxidative stress in the brain of cigarette smoke-induced noxiousness: neuroprotective role of Sesbania grandiflora. Metabolic brain disease, 30, 573-582.
Soderlund, D. M., Clark, J. M., Sheets, L. P., Mullin, L. S., Piccirillo, V. J., Sargent, D., Stevens, J. T. & Weiner, M. L. (2002): Mechanisms of pyrethroid neurotoxicity: implications for cumulative risk assessment. Toxicology, 171, 3-59.
Srivastava, S. K. & Beutler, E. (1970): Glutathione metabolism of the erythrocyte. The enzymic cleavage of glutathione–haemoglobin preparations by glutathione reductase. Biochemical Journal, 119, 353-357.
Thirumurugan, P., Selvan, S., Yamini Priya, V. & Dhanasekar, L. (2015): Impact of Hemidesmus Indicus on Mosquito Coil Exposed Rat. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 3, 19-23.
THOM, S. R. (1990): Carbon monoxide-mediated brain lipid peroxidation in the rat. Journal of applied physiology, 68, 997-1003.
Tuon, T., Valvassori, S. S., Lopes-Borges, J., Fries, G. R., Silva, L. A., Kapczinski, F., Quevedo, J. & Pinho, R. A. (2010): Effects of moderate exercise on cigarette smoke exposure-induced hippocampal oxidative stress values and neurological behaviors in mice. Neuroscience letters, 475, 16-19.
Valko, M., Morris, H. & Cronin, M. (2005): Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress, Current Medicinal Chemitry, 12, 1161-1208. Google Scholar.
Wang, P., Zeng, T., Zhang, C.-L., Gao, X.-C., Liu, Z., Xie, K.-Q. & Chi, Z.-F. (2009): Lipid peroxidation was involved in the memory impairment of carbon monoxide-induced delayed neuron damage. Neurochemical research, 34, 1293.3



How to Cite

Kurawa, M. I., Magaji, R. A., Magaji, M. G., Yusuf, T., Ya’u, M., & Daneji, U. A. (2019). Brain Oxidative Status in Rats after Smoke Exposure. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 22(2), 219 - 224. Retrieved from



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)