Green Coconut Water Stimulates Follicular Growth and Development in the ovary of Hyperprolactin Sprague- Dawley rat.
Keywords:Ovary, Follicles, Histology, Green coconut water, hyperprolactinaemia
Hyperprolactinaemia is a common endocrine cause of infertility in women. It is essentially associated with decrease in the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone which consequently leads to the inhibition of follicular development. Green coconut water (GCW) is the liquid in the inner cavity of an immature coconut fruit. Studies have demonstrated that GCW has estrogenic property that can regulate the endocrine system. This present study therefore investigated the effects of GCW on follicular growth and development in hyperprolactine rats to determine its endocrine regulating property on ovarian folliculogenesis. A total of fifty- five cyclic female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 145-170 g were used for this study. The animals were randomly divided into four experimental study groups. In group 1, Metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCH) at 0.2 mg/100 g body weight was administered daily for 28 days to induce hyperprolactinaemia and this was withdrawn for 8, 16 and 28 days to check for recovery. The animals in group 2 were post-treated with GCW. In group 3, animals were treated with GCW only and group 4, the control group received distilled water only. The ovaries were carefully dissected out, trimmed of fat and processed for histology with Haematoxylin & Eosin stains. The histological presentation of follicular growth and development pattern in the ovaries of the post-treatment groups were comparable with the control. Therefore, this study presented structural evidence that GCW stimulates follicular growth in the ovary of hyperprolactin rats.
1. Alexia P., Manuel D., Nafissatou D., Jean-Pierre P. (2012): Coconut water preservation and processing. Fruits 67(3),157-171
2. Anita R. (2016): Oestrogens, prolactin, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and schizophrenic psychoses. The Lancet Psychiatry 4(1), 63-72.
3. Anurag P. and Rajamohan T. (2003). Cardioprotective effect of tendercoconut water in experimental myocardial infarction. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 58,1–12.
4. Atanas G. A., Birgit W., Eva-Maria P., Thomas L., Christoph W., Pavel U, Veronika T., Et al. 2015. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review. Biotechnol Adv. 33(8): 1582–1614.
5. Bakare A.A., Oremosu A.A., Akinsola O.J.(2013): Estrous cycle study on green coconut water in experimentally induced hyperprolactine in female Sprague-Dawleys rats. Sch. J. App. Med. Sci. 1(6), 1031-35.
6. Bakare A., Adam A., Rukayat A. (2018): Ovarian weight evaluation in hyperprolactin female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with Green coconut water. J exp. Cli ana., (in press).
7. Carlos S., Sarah C., Scott M., Musa A., Michelle F., Nicola J ., Bert S. (2015): FSH Regulates IGF-2 Expression in Human Granulosa Cells in an AKT-Dependent Manner. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.100(8),1046-55.
8. David R. Grattan Christine L. Jasoni Xinhuai Liu Greg M. Anderson Allan E. Herbison. (2007): Prolactin Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons to Suppress Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Mice. Endocrin. 9 (148), 4344–51.
9. Deepak K., Rema R., Roy M. (2012): Description of a new method of ovariectomy in female rats. Rev. Bras. Reumatol. 52,3.
10. Hani A., Faris M. and Zuhair M. (2015): Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study. Glob. J Health Sci. 8(3), 72–79.
11. Idris A., Ibrahim S., Rasheed Y., Isah A., Randawa A., Adesiyun G.(2018): Hyperprolactinemia and female infertility; Pattern of clinical presentation in a tertiary health facility in Northern Nigeria. Sahel Med J., 21 (1) 1-5
12. Kennedy I., Noel N., Wannang S. and Nanloh S. J. (2013): Preliminary studies on Cocos nucifera water for conceptive and antiabortive properties. Sch. J Med. 3(2), 19-22.
13. Laura D. R., Betina G., Petteri A., Noelia P. G., Matti P., Ricardo S. C. (2012): Short-Term Pharmacological Suppression of the Hyperprolactinemia of Infertile hCG-Overproducing Female mice persistently restores their fertility. Endocrinol. 153 (12), 5980–5992.
14. Marcondes F. K., Bianchi F. J. and Tanno T. A. (2002): Determination of the estrous cycle phases of rats: some helpful considerations. Braz. J. Biol. 62, 4a.
15. Matsuzaki T., Azuma K., Irahara M., Yasui T., Aono T. (1994): Mechanism of anovulation in hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea determined by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection combined with human chorionic gonadotropin. Fertil. Steril. 62, 1143–1149.
16. Mohammad M and Takashi M. (2010). Growth of primordial oocyte in Neonatal amd adult mammals. J Rep Dev., 6(56), 559-566.
17. Monique T., Bernardo G., Gustavo F., Rogério F., Rodrigo C., Raj D., Vilceu B. and Paulo B. (2014): Expression and molecular consequences of inhibition of estrogen receptors in granulosa cells of bovine follicles Journal of Ovarian Research 7, 96
18. Nawroth F. (2005): Hyperprolactinaemia and the regular menstrual cycle in asymptomatic women: should it be treated during therapy for infertility? Reprod. Biomed. 11(5), 581-8.
19. Nisaudah R., Farid S., Kitja S., Wilart R., Boornsirm W. and James R. C. (2009). Young coconut juice significantly reduces histopathological changes in the brain that is induced by hormonal imbalance: A possible implication to postmenopausal women. Journal of Hist. and Histopath., 24, 667-674.
20. Patricia F., Renato B., Loren W. (2016): . Physiology of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis in the Male. Urologic Clinics of North America 43(2) , ):151-62
21. Patrick J. W. and Offler C.E. (2001): Compartmentation of transport and transfer events in developing seeds. J. Exp. Bot. 52, 551–564.
22. Pragya T. (2010): Coconut Water during Pregnancy. J. Sci. Food Agri. 2244, 875–88.
23. Punghmatharith B. (1998): Sex hormone-like substances in young coconut juice and their effects on uterine growth in rats. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech. 10, 221–226.
24. Ranko K., Jasmina P., Milan S., Dragana R., Radomir Z., Aleksandra P., Milan T. (2015): Ciation between hyperprolactinaemia and other causes of female infertility. Med and Biol. 17(1) pp. 36-41
25. Saranya N. and Leila J. (2016): Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in infertile women and its association with hypothyroidism. Int. J Adv. in Med. 1(2), 3925-33.
26. Sofowora A.(1993): Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicines in Africa. New York: Chichester John Wiley & Sons. 97-145.
27. Ursula B. and Kaiser M.D. (2012): Hyperprolactinaemia and infertility: new insights. Journal of Clinical Investig. 122 (10), 3467–3468.